We work in the areas of Sustainability, Renewable Energy, Climate Change And Clean Development Mechanism. We provide a range of services right from Advisory, Consultancy, Feasibility Studies to Project Design, Implementation and Monitoring
India is a tropical country and therefore receives abundant solar insolation. Solar energy is a very important resource but is still largely underutilized in India. It currently accounts for only about 0.8% of the total power generation capacity in India. On an average, the country has 300 sunny days a year and receives an annual radiation of 1,600-2,200kWh/m2 translating into an annual estimated potential of 6 billion GWh.
Presently, solar energy is being harnessed through two different routes – Solar Thermal (ST) and Solar Photovoltaic (SPV). SPV technology converts sunlight into electricity through photovoltaic cells. In ST technology, the solar energy is converted into heat energy.
At CRESD, the effort is to identify critical – technical, economic, and policy issues for solar energy development in India. The focus is for strengthening of solar energy technologies, building awareness of its benefits and create opportunities to develop solar energy workforce in the future.
Bioenergy is one of the largest and fastest growing renewable energy sources. Bioenergy is a matrix of processes converting a multitude of biological raw materials –Biomass, for heating, power, cogeneration (CHP) or tri-generation.
Biomass is an important energy source that contributes more than 14% of global energy supply. Biomass availability in India is estimated at about 500 million tons per year, of which 120-150 million tons is available for power generation.
Some of the emerging technologies under this sector are:
Biomass for power generation or co-generation (CHP)
Bio-fuels and Bio-oils
At Vikalp the focus is on research, development and deployment of sustainable, environmental friendly, economically viable and emerging technologies for conversion of biomass into bio-fuels.
Waste To Energy
Waste management involves management of activities associated with generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, and disposal of waste which is environmentally compatible, adopting principles of economy, aesthetics, and conservation.
With rapid urbanization, the country is facing massive waste management challenge. Over 377 million urban people live in 7,935 towns and cities and generate 62 Million Metric Ton (MMT) of municipal solid waste per annum. Only 43 MMT of the waste is collected, 11.9 MMT is treated and 31 MMT is dumped in landfill sites. Experts believe that India is following a flawed system of waste disposal and management.
The problems caused by solid and liquid wastes can be significantly mitigated through the adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies that will allow treatment and processing of wastes before their disposal. It is estimated that there exists a potential for generation of about 4000 MW of power from urban and industrial wastes of the country; about 1700 MW from urban waste (1500 MW from MSW and 225 MW from sewage) and about 1300 MW from industrial waste. New initiatives for development of biogas upgradation/enrichment system for converting biogas into natural gas (BIO-CNG) quality fuel for commercial usage, are also being looked at.
Waste to Energy plays a crucial role in sustainable renewable power, alongside addressing the processing of waste and its disposal. One of CRESD’S key interest areas is developing, promoting, and generating renewable sources of energy, with an emphasis on value from waste.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Initiatives
Hydrogen and Fuel cell technology are emerging area that holds key to replacement of hydrocarbons. Hydrogen is a clean fuel and an energy carrier that can be used for a broad range of applications as a possible substitute to liquid hydrocarbons. Hydrogen is the primary fuel for fuel cells. It produces electricity, water and heat through efficiency, modularity, compactness, and noise free operations. Because of its modular nature, fuel cells are ideally suited for decentralized power generation and for reaction between hydrogen and oxygen/air. The fuel cell technology offers high conversion automotive application.
Hydrogen can contribute to the goal of finding a viable alternate energy resource for the transportation sector. It can also be used in fuel cells to generate electricity for stationary, portable and transport applications. Although the commercial viability is yet to be fully established, but in years to come this source may play a major upcoming role in the economy because of its high efficiency.
India has also prepared the Hydrogen Energy Roadmap (NHERM, 2006) which has projected that one million hydrogen fueled vehicles would on the Indian roads and 1000 MW aggregate hydrogen-based power generating capacity be set up in the country, both by 2020. The central mission of the Hydrogen Program is to research, develop, and validate hydrogen production, transport, delivery, storage, and fuel cell technologies.
Wind has emerged as the most promising renewable energy source in India. As of March, 2017, the country has had an installed wind capacity of 32.28 GW, making it the world’s fourth largest wind energy producer. Wind capacity in India is generated entirely from on-shore projects.
While the estimated potential is concentrated in Gujarat, installations are led by Tamil Nadu, followed by Gujarat and Maharashtra. However, there is a significant potential in other regions which is waiting to be tapped. Innovative approaches such as wind-diesel and wind- solar hybrid systems are being used to enhance the availability of power and utilize the full potential of this renewable energy source.
Energy Efficiency, Energy Auditing, and Green Building
Energy efficiency is a way of managing and restraining the growth in energy consumption. Something is more energy efficient if it delivers more services for the same energy input, or the same services for less energy input.
The GOI launched the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) in June 2010 with an outlay of INR 2.35 billion. The NMEEE is one of the eight key missions under the NAPCC. By 2105, the mission is expected to result in savings of nearly 23 million tons oil-equivalent of fuel in coal, gas and petroleum products (E&Y 2103). The key initiatives under the NMEEE include:
The Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme: a market-based mechanism to enhance energy efficiency in large energy intensive industries. The designated entities are given energy intensity improvement targets
The Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE): aims to promote and accelerate the shift toward energy efficient appliances in the designated sectors through various methods including mandatory energy efficiency labeling for equipment and appliances and by making them more affordable through clean development mechanism (CDM) financing.
The Energy-Efficiency financing platform: Focuses on creating mechanisms to help finance demand side management (DSM) programs in all of the select sectors by capturing energy savings.
Energy Auditing: Effective management of energy-consuming systems can lead to significant cost and energy savings as well as increased comfort, lower maintenance costs, and extended equipment life. The energy audit evaluates the efficiency of all building and process systems that use energy. The energy auditor starts at the utility meters, locating all energy sources coming into a facility. Auditing includes identification of energy streams for each fuel, quantifying those energy streams into discrete functions, evaluating the efficiency of each of those functions, and identifying energy and cost savings opportunities.
Green Building: A green building minimizes the demand on fossil fuel-based energy, maximizes the recycle, reuse, renewable energy, and energy efficient devices and appliances. The needs to reduce energy consumption and increase use of renewable energy in buildings have been an important concern. Consequently, energy conscious architecture has been promoted which includes the use of solar passive design concept, use of eco-friendly and less energy intensive building materials, integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency, water recycling etc. This was the origin of the green building concept.
Sustainable Development & Climate Change Clean Development Mechanism (CDM):
Sustainable Development is the imperative of 21st century. Long term actions for sustainable development are required in the face of environmental issues that we are confronted with. Renewable Energy remains the one of the most productive routes that can be taken towards achieving this. Renewable Energy can contribute directly towards overall improvement of living standards of people and can also help maintain ecological balance, replace conventional energy use and generate additional employment opportunities. To move on the path of sustainable development in India, the challenge is to integrate environmental issues with development strategies.
At Centre for Renewable Energy & Sustainable Development (CRESD, Vikalp), we endeavour to nurture our processes, in spirit and action, to aim towards sustainable development. To chart a sustainable path that is inclusive, equitable and participitative, we hope to join hands with our citizens, government, academia, researchers, credible institutes and organizations, national and international agencies and civil society organizations.
The linkages between biodiversity and sustainable development has been recognized repeatedly. There is now a recognition that bio diversity and ecosystem services are central to sustainable development and contribute directly to human well being.
Biodiversity provides basic goods such as food, fibre, fuel; it underpins ecosystem functions and the provision of benefits to people (services); it also provides eco-system resilience. The benefits provided by bio-diversity and ecosystem services are important to all including vulnerable and marginalized. Conversely, the impacts stemming from the lost and de-gradation of bio-diversity are particularly severe and more so on marginalized, children and women. These groups are mostly directly dependent on bio-diversity and eco-systems for their livelihood.
While research remains one significant tool to achieve this objective, designing and implementing replicable service delivery models of sustainable development that emphasize cross sectoral linkages and are inclusive, equitable and participatory, is the other significant route to achieve this objective. Our objectives will include: promoting development of environmental friendly sustainable livelihood options, environmental education, mitigating climate change impacts, promoting indigenous technology for sustainable development, strengthening the voice of the consumer and strengthening cross sectoral linkages to establish development as inclusive development for all.